Tag Archives: Math

Update Ending Time 4 Fractions – Problem #12 – Sharing cereal bars

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall/Winter. I am updating the posts, in case you want to join us this year

Here comes our last Equal Sharing problem !


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #12 – Sharing cereal bars

Yellow – 2 people want to share 1 cereal bar so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?

Orange – 3 people want to share 1 cereal bar so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?

Red – 5 people want to share 3 cereal bars so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?


Invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

The problem will lead to a answer of each person getting 1/2 of a cereal bar (level Yellow) , 1/3 of a cereal bar (level Orange) or 3/5 of a cereal bar (level Red).

problem12

Level Red – Child’s sample

This is the last problem. What can you do now ?

The goal of T4F was to provide children with opportunities to explore fractions at home, so they have stronger foundations to build up on when they study fractions at school. This is our last problem, but it does not have to be the end of our journey. The set of problems was designed to provide a wide range of answers, to explore halves, fourths, thirds, fifths and so on, so do not hesitate to go back to these problems and provide one regularly to your child, until your child figures out that “a thing shared by b people is a/b” (Empson & Levi, 2011, p25).  For instance, Problem 12, Level Orange, leading to an answer of 1/3 would be an instructive step towards Problem 8, Level Red, that leads to an answer of 2/3.

The level of difficulties can be seen as follow (Epson & Levi, 2011):

  • Equal Sharing problems that lead to a whole number (i.e. Problem 8, Level Yellow)
  • Equal Sharing problems that lead to an answer that is more than one, with the children having to decide what to do with any left over they may have (first in halves, e.g. Problem 8, Level Orange, or Problem 9, Level Yellow, then fourth e.g. Problem 9, Level Orange)
  • Equal Sharing problems that lead to an answer that is less than one (first with halves or fourths e.g. Problem 12, Level Yellow, then thirds, e.g. Problem 8, Level Red, Problem 12, Level Orange, and so on)

I am including a table summarizing the problems and set of numbers we have exploring so far, I thought it might help.

Problem Level Number involved
Problem 8 – Sharing paper Level Yellow 2
Level Orange 2 1/2
Level Red 2/3
Problem 9 – Sharing bananas Level Yellow 2 1/2
Level Orange 1 1/4
Level Red 4/5
Problem 10 – Sharing apples Level Yellow 1 1/2
Level Orange 2 1/4
Level Red 4/6
Problem 11 – Sharing clay Level Yellow 3 1/2
Level Orange 1/2
Level Red 3/8
Problem 12 – Sharing cereal bars Level Yellow 1/2
Level Orange 1/3
Level Red 3/5

Hope you enjoyed our T4F journey ! As always, I  appreciate any feedback you may have. Comment, or email at journey2helpchildrenwithmath(at)gmail.com.


Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.


Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #10 – Sharing apples

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall/Winter. I am updating the posts, in case you want to join us this year

Here is the problem for the week.


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #10 – Sharing apples

Yellow – 2 people want to share 3 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?

Orange – 4 people want to share 9 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?

Red – 6 people want to share 4 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?


As always, invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

Yellow leads to 1 apple and a half, Orange leads to 2 apples and a 1/4 of an apple, and Red leads to 4/6 of an apple, or its equivalent 2/3, depending on the strategy the child may use.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

My child went with Level Yellow and Level Orange. I was surprised to see her writing a fraction symbol (1/4). She apparently learned the symbol on her own while playing an education game on the tablet, through a short video, showing a pizza, cut into halves, fourths, and eights. Pretty neat, but at one point, the video talks about 3 fourths of a pizza (3/4) left to eat showing … 6 eights of a pizza (6/8). The 2 fractions are equivalents, but how puzzling to hear 3/4 and see 6/8 of a pizza ? 
 Pb10orange

Sharing my experience (Winter 2017)

There is a significant gap between Level Orange and Level Red, so of course, it is perfectly fine if a child decides to explore only Level Yellow and/or Orange. My child tried Level Red by sharing the apples in halves, providing half of an apple to each child but having some left over. We will be back next week to explore further !

Enjoy !


Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.


Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #9 – Sharing bananas

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. 

Another Equal Sharing problem (Empson & Levi, 2011) to help children make connections with fractions.


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #9 – Sharing bananas

Yellow – 2 children want to share 5 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?

Orange – 4 children want to share 5 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?

Red – 5 children want to share 4 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?


Invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

Level Yellow involves halves, level Orange, fourths and Level Red, fifths. Level Yellow leads to a mixed number (2 1/2) although it may make more sense to some children to give each child 2 bananas, and have a banana left. Level Orange leads to a mixed number (1 1/4), level Red to a proper fraction (4/5).

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)
My child got a little frustrated with Level Red. If it happens to your child, you may want to start the problem with 5 children sharing 1 banana.  It was a good alternative for us.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

We continued modeling the different levels with flashcards, through folding/cutting paper similarly to what we did last week, each flashcard representing a banana. It is a good way to explore half, fourth, or fifth, depending on the level, with the option to going back to a “whole” banana if need be. We also took the chance to compare a fourth of a “banana “to half of a “banana”, or “two fourth” of a banana to half of a “banana” (“it is the same!”), etc.

Enjoy !


Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.


3rd Edition – Time 4 Fractions – Problem #7 – Reviewing with buttons

My daughter and I went on a 12 week- journey the past two years to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from our previous journeys,  in case you want to join us this year. Click here if you want to know more about the journey.

This week is going to be a little different, as it is our last problem before starting Equal Sharing problems and fractions (Yeah ! Finally !). You may have noticed your child being more comfortable with some of the problems posted for the past 6 weeks, and less comfortable with others. This week is your chance to review what we have done so far.  I hope you do not feel too overwhelmed with all the options. If so, just come back next week, we will be back to our 3 Levels :-)


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #7 – Reviewing with buttons

Review multiplication problems

  • Level Yellow – Mr. Needle is making 2 jackets. On each jacket, he puts 3 buttons. How many buttons does Mr Needle need in total?
  • Level Orange – Mr. Needle is making 5 jackets. On each jacket, he puts 4 buttons. How many buttons does Mr Needle need  in total?
  • Level Red – Mr. Needle is making ___ jackets. On each jacket, he puts ___ buttons. How many buttons does Mr Needle need  in total? Complete the problem with the numbers of your choice.

Review measurement division problems

  • Level Yellow – Mr Needle has 5 buttons. He wants to make jackets with 2 buttons on each jacket. How many jackets can Mr Needle make?
  • Level Orange – Mr Needle has 15 buttons. He wants to make jackets with 4 buttons on each jacket. How many jackets can Mr Needle make?
  • Level Red – Mr Needle has ___ buttons. He wants to make jackets with ___ buttons on each jacket. How many jackets can Mr Needle make?  Complete the problem with the numbers of your choice. (e.g. 27 buttons, 8 buttons on each jacket)

Review partitive division problems

  • Level Yellow – Mr Needle has 8 buttons. He wants to make 3 jackets, using the same number of buttons on each jacket. How many buttons can Mr Needle use for each jacket ?
  • Level Orange – Mr Needle has 13 buttons. He wants to make 4 jackets, using the same number of buttons on each jacket. How many buttons can Mr Needle use for each jacket ?
  • Level Red – Mr Needle has ___ buttons. He wants to make ___ jackets, using the same number of buttons on each jacket. How many buttons can Mr Needle use for each jacket ? Complete the problem with the numbers of your choice. (e.g. 31 buttons, 7 jackets)

As always, invite your child to solve one of the problems, and listen to his/her way of solving it. He/she can make sense of the problem while using small objects (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers) or drawing a picture. He/she may write an equation. Each child should pick the problem that he/she feels like exploring.

If your child calls out the answer right away, remind him/her that the answer is fine, but how it was obtained is even more important in this journey. How would he/she explain it to a younger child? Could he/she represent the problem with a drawing? a diagram? Using small objects ?

Sharing my experience

We did not review these problems this year, but here is a quick summary of what we did a couple of years ago.

My child started with the multiplication problem, and what I found interesting is that, compared to what she did with Problem #1 and Problem #2 (which were also multiplication problems), she wrote, as an equation, a multiplication. Apparently, she learned about multiplication recently (through playing on Starfall.com, from what she said) and made the connection with the buttons on the jackets. As I told you before, our T4F journey is about exploring, but symbols do come in time ! My child was not ready to write a multiplication equation a few weeks ago, but it looks like now, she is.

IMG_4124IMG_4125

Time to move on to the next leg of our journey: equal sharing problems, here we come !


3rd edition – Time 4 Fractions – Problem #6 – Stacking blocks

My daughter and I went on a 12 week- journey the past two years to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from our previous journeys,  in case you want to join us this year. Click here if you want to know more about the journey.

Here is Problem #6, a second partitive division problem.


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #6 – Stacking blocksT4F_Pb#6

Yellow – Emmy has 5 wooden blocks. She wants to make 2 towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?

Orange – Emmy has 13 wooden blocks. She wants to make 4 towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?

Red – Emmy has 23 wooden blocks. She wants to make ___ towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?


What to do as a parent ?

As always, invite your child to solve one of the problems, and listen to his/her way of solving it. He/she can make sense of the problem while using small objects (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers) or drawing a picture. He/she may write an equation. Each child should pick the problem that he/she feels like exploring.

If your child calls out the answer right away, remind him/her that the answer is fine, but how it was obtained is even more important in this journey. How would he/she explain it to a younger child? Could he/she represent the problem with a drawing? a diagram? Using small objects ?

This week, all levels involve a remainder (Level Yellow: 2 blocks/tower, 1 block left; Level Orange: 3 blocks / tower, 1 block left).

Sharing my experienceRepresentationProblem6

At week 6 of our Time 4 Fractions journey, it seems that my child has her own routine to solve the problem, through at least 2 Levels. She starts with modeling level Yellow, and usually draws a picture to solve level Orange and/or Red. Then, she adds an equation that would match her drawing. This week was no different. She modeled Level Yellow, and drew the blocks, one at a time, in 4 towers, to solve Level Orange.

 


Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.


3rd edition – Fractions – Problem #5 – Peg dolls

My daughter and I went on a 12 week- journey the past two years to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from our previous journeys,  in case you want to join us this year. Click here if you want to know more about the journey.

Here is Problem #5, a partitive division problem. Last week, with the measurement division problem, children knew the number of items in each group, and needed to find the number of groups. This week, children know how many groups they have, and have to find out how many items are in each group. Just another way to keep exploring division and mathematical relationships.


Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #5 – Peg dolls

PegDollsLevel Yellow – Peter and Julie made 6 peg dolls. They put them into 3 gift
bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?

Level Orange – Peter and Julie made 18 peg dolls. They put them into 6 gift bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?

Level Red – Peter and Julie made ___ peg dolls. They put them into ___ bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?


What to do as a parent ?

As always, invite your child to solve one of the problems, and listen to his/her way of solving it. He/she can make sense of the problem while using small objects (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers) or drawing a picture. He/she may write an equation. Each child should pick the problem that he/she feels like exploring.

If your child calls out the answer right away, remind him/her that the answer is fine, but how it was obtained is even more important in this journey. How would he/she explain it to a younger child? Could he/she represent the problem with a drawing? a diagram? Using small objects ?

With level Red, I left again the option open to pick the number of peg dolls and the number of bags. Be aware though, that depending on the numbers the child picks, Peter and Julie may have some peg dolls left (e.g. 13 dolls to put into 5 bags), or may not have enough dolls (e.g. 6 dolls, to put into 12 bags). Let me know how it works !

Sharing my experience

My child solved Level Yellow first by modeling it, though dispatching 6 marbles into 3 containers, one marble at a time. She also did a representation of the problem, and wrote an equation (repeated subtraction). Problem#5

For Level Red, she picked 20 peg dolls, and 4 bags. Then, she asked me to solve it. But I am glad she did, as we ended up talking about how different people may use different ways to solve a same problem, and how she will learn additional strategies and symbols at school (i.e. division instead of repeated subtraction, multiplication instead of repeated addition).

Click here to see a video of the exploration of Level Orange with buttons. As always, it is just to provide an example of how a child may explore the problem.

Enjoy !


Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.


Our 3rd edition of Time 4 Fractions is ready to start: all aboard !

Please click here to follow Time 4 Fractions.

I am quite excited about starting our 3rd edition of Time 4 Fractions in the coming weeks. I should be able to update the posts from last year significantly, since I went to the conference dedicated to Cognitively Guided Instruction in June and I am taking a course on Children’s thinking this semester as a doctoral student.

As you may remember, I started Time 4 Fractions two years ago, after I read the book “Extending Children’s Mathematics – Fractions and Decimals” (Epson & Levi, 2011) as a M.Ed. student, thinking “This IS the way I would have liked to explore fractions! “. An ah-HA! moment, a true eye-opening: building up meaning for fractions through equal sharing problems. A wonderful approach to pursue at School. But also at home, I believe: the more opportunities to extend math reasoning, the better.

Over the twelve coming weeks, I am going to post a word problem that will take the kids to slowly, gradually, explore the concept of fractions. We will start our journey with multiplication problems (yes, even with lower graders, click here if you are not sure why !), division problems, then, finally equal sharing problems, the core of our journey, and the true beginning of our fraction exploration. The sequence of problems is based on the reading of two books, Children’s Mathematics (Carpenter et al, 2015) and Extending Children’s Mathematics – Fractions and Decimals” (Epson & Levi, 2011).

Whether your child is in lower grade or upper grade, I hope you join us. I share what I do with my own child as a illustration of what a child may do, but by no mean as what a child should do. It is not a test, it is not a race. Week after week, problem after problem, children practice their reasoning skills by creating their own strategies to solve problems.

In the previous year, I found it quite convenient to put together a “math box”. You may want to do the same before we start !

  • paper and pencils. Markers are also helpful to connect a visual representation to an equation.
  • manipulatives to model the problem.  You do not need the base-Ten blocks. Marbles, buttons can do the trick. I like Legos® and Duplos®, as you can stack them in Tens.
  • Containers (e.g. paper cups, Tupperware®), to model problems involving groups of items.
  • A stack of paper (e.g. blank flashcards), to explore fractions, by cutting parts of a whole, and putting them back together.Our math box

 

Most important, I will be here to support you in the journey. Please, feel free to comment or email at journey2helpchildrenwithmath(at)gmail(dot)com if you have any question about our journey. The more feedback I receive, the more complete the next post will be ! Let’s build up a community of people supporting at home what our children learn during Math instruction !

Off we go !

References:

  • Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Franke, M., Levi, L. and Empson S. (2015). Children’s Mathematics, Second Edition: Cognitively Guided Instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. ISBN-13:978-0325052878.
  • Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.