# Tag Archives: Fraction

## Update Ending Time 4 Fractions – Problem #12 – Sharing cereal bars

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall/Winter. I am updating the posts, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Here comes our last Equal Sharing problem !

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #12 – Sharing cereal bars

Level Yellow – 2 people want to share 1 cereal bar so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?

Level Orange – 3 people want to share 1 cereal bar so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?

Level Red – 5 people want to share 3 cereal bars so that each of them gets the same amount. How many cereal bar would each get?

Invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

The problem will lead to a answer of each person getting 1/2 of a cereal bar (level Yellow) , 1/3 of a cereal bar (level Orange) or 3/5 of a cereal bar (level Red).

Level Red – Child’s sample

This is the last problem. What can you do now ?

The goal of T4F was to provide children with opportunities to explore fractions at home, so they have stronger foundations to build up on when they study fractions at school. This is our last problem, but it does not have to be the end of our journey. The set of problems was designed to provide a wide range of answers, to explore halves, fourths, thirds, fifths and so on, so do not hesitate to go back to these problems and provide one regularly to your child, until your child figures out that “a thing shared by b people is a/b” (Empson & Levi, 2011, p25).  For instance, Problem 12, Level Orange, leading to an answer of 1/3 would be an instructive step towards Problem 8, Level Red, that leads to an answer of 2/3.

The level of difficulties can be seen as follow (Epson & Levi, 2011):

• Equal Sharing problems that lead to a whole number (i.e. Problem 8, Level Yellow)
• Equal Sharing problems that lead to an answer that is more than one, with the children having to decide what to do with any left over they may have (first in halves, e.g. Problem 8, Level Orange, or Problem 9, Level Yellow, then fourth e.g. Problem 9, Level Orange)
• Equal Sharing problems that lead to an answer that is less than one (first with halves or fourths e.g. Problem 12, Level Yellow, then thirds, e.g. Problem 8, Level Red, Problem 12, Level Orange, and so on)

I am including a table summarizing the problems and set of numbers we have exploring so far, I thought it might help.

Problem Level Number involved
Problem 8 – Sharing paper Level Yellow 2
Level Orange 2 1/2
Level Red 2/3
Problem 9 – Sharing bananas Level Yellow 2 1/2
Level Orange 1 1/4
Level Red 4/5
Problem 10 – Sharing apples Level Yellow 1 1/2
Level Orange 2 1/4
Level Red 4/6
Problem 11 – Sharing clay Level Yellow 3 1/2
Level Orange 1/2
Level Red 3/8
Problem 12 – Sharing cereal bars Level Yellow 1/2
Level Orange 1/3
Level Red 3/5

Hope you enjoyed our T4F journey ! As always, I  appreciate any feedback you may have. Comment, or email at journey2helpchildrenwithmath(at)gmail.com.

Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #10 – Sharing apples

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall/Winter. I am updating the posts, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Here is the problem for the week.

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #10 – Sharing apples

Level Yellow – 2 people want to share 3 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?

Level Orange – 4 people want to share 9 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?

Level Red – 6 people want to share 4 apples so that each of them gets the same amount. How many apples would each get?

As always, invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

Level Yellow leads to 1 apple and a half, Level Orange leads to 2 apples and a 1/4 of an apple, and Level Red leads to 4/6 of an apple, or its equivalent 2/3, depending on the strategy the child may use.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

My child went with Level Yellow and Level Orange. I was surprised to see her writing a fraction symbol (1/4). She apparently learned the symbol on her own while playing an education game on the tablet, through a short video, showing a pizza, cut into halves, fourths, and eights. Pretty neat, but at one point, the video talks about 3 fourths of a pizza (3/4) left to eat showing … 6 eights of a pizza (6/8). The 2 fractions are equivalents, but how puzzling to hear 3/4 and see 6/8 of a pizza ?

Sharing my experience (Winter 2017)

There is a significant gap between Level Orange and Level Red, so of course, it is perfectly fine if a child decides to explore only Level Yellow and/or Orange. My child tried Level Red by sharing the apples in halves, providing half of an apple to each child but having some left over. We will be back next week to explore further !

Enjoy !

Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #9 – Sharing bananas

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from last year with videos, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Another Equal Sharing problem (Empson & Levi, 2011) to help children make connections with fractions.

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #9 – Sharing bananas

Level Yellow – 2 children want to share 5 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?

Level Orange – 4 children want to share 5 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?

Level Red – 5 children want to share 4 bananas so that each of them gets the same amount. How many bananas would each get?

Invite your child to either model the problem (with paper and scissors for instance) and/or represent the problem with a picture. If your child has learned about fractions at school, invite him/her to connect symbols to the model or picture. And as always, invite your child to share his/her reasoning with you !

Level Yellow involves halves, level Orange, fourths and Level Red, fifths. Level Yellow leads to a mixed number (2 1/2) although it may make more sense to some children to give each child 2 bananas, and have a banana left. Level Orange leads to a mixed number (1 1/4), level Red to a proper fraction (4/5).

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)
My child got a little frustrated with Level Red. If it happens to your child, you may want to start the problem with 5 children sharing 1 banana.  It was a good alternative for us.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

We continued modeling the different levels with flashcards, through folding/cutting paper similarly to what we did last week, each flashcard representing a banana. It is a good way to explore half, fourth, or fifth, depending on the level, with the option to going back to a “whole” banana if need be. We also took the chance to compare a fourth of a “banana “to half of a “banana”, or “two fourth” of a banana to half of a “banana” (“it is the same!”), etc.

Enjoy !

Reference

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #6 – Stacking blocks

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from last year with videos, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Here is Problem #6, a second partitive division problem.

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #6 – Stacking blocks

Level Yellow – Emmy has 5 wooden blocks. She wants to make 2 towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?

Level Orange – Emmy has 13 wooden blocks. She wants to make 4 towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?

Level Red – Emmy has 23 wooden blocks. She wants to make ___ towers as tall as possible, using the same number of blocks in each tower. How many blocks should she use in each tower?

Invite your child to solve one of the problems  by

1. modeling the problem with manipulatives (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers),
2. representing the problem on a piece of paper, and/or
3. writing an equation.

When your child is done, invite him/her to share his/her reasoning with you. If your child only writes an equation, encourage him to represent or model the problem as well, and connect the parts of the equation to the model/representation.

This week, all levels involve a remainder (Level Yellow: 2 blocks/tower, 1 block left; Level Orange: 3 blocks / tower, 1 block left) .

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

At week 6 of our Time 4 Fractions journey, it seems that my child has her own routine to solve the problem, through at least 2 Levels. She starts with modeling level Yellow, and usually draws a picture to solve level Orange and/or Red. Then, she adds an equation that would match her drawing. This week was no different. She modeled Level Yellow, and drew the blocks, one at a time, in 4 towers, to solve Level Orange.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

Our experience this week was quite similar to last year. Time to move to fraction problems!

Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #5 – Peg dolls

My daughter and I went on a 12 week-journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from last year with videos, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Here is Problem #5, a partitive division problem. Last week, with the measurement division problem, children knew the number of items in each group, and needed to find the number of groups. This week, children know how many groups they have, and have to find out how many items are in each group. Just another way to keep exploring division and mathematical relationships.

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #5 – Peg dolls

Level Yellow – Peter and Julie made 6 peg dolls. They put them into 3 gift
bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?

Level Orange – Peter and Julie made 18 peg dolls. They put them into 6 gift bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?

Level Red – Peter and Julie made ___ peg dolls. They put them into ___ bags with the same number of peg dolls in each bag. How many peg dolls are in each bag?

As always, invite your child to solve one of the problems by

1. modeling the problem with manipulatives (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers),
2. representing the problem on a piece of paper, and/or
3. writing an equation.

When your child is done, invite him/her to share his/her reasoning with you.

With level Red, I left again the option open to pick the number of peg dolls and the number of bags, as my child seems to enjoy the freedom. You may want to invite your child to explore Level Yellow or Level Orange first, though, with modeling the problem with manipulative or a picture. Be aware though, that depending on the numbers the child picks, Peter and Julie may have some peg dolls left (e.g. 13 dolls to put into 5 bags), or may not have enough dolls (e.g. 6 dolls, to put into 12 bags). Let me know how it works !

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

My child solved Level Yellow first by modeling it, though dispatching 6 marbles into 3 containers, one marble at a time. She also did a representation of the problem, and wrote an equation (repeated subtraction).

For Level Red, she picked 20 peg dolls, and 4 bags. Then, she asked me to solve it. But I am glad she did, as we ended up talking about how different people may use different ways to solve a same problem, and how she will learn additional strategies and symbols at school (i.e. division instead of repeated subtraction, multiplication instead of repeated addition).

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

Here is Rosie exploring Level Orange with buttons. As always, it is just to provide an example of how a child may explore the problem.

Enjoy !

Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #4 – Making toys

My daughter and I went on a 12 week- journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from last year with videos, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Here is Problem #4, a second measurement division problem.

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #4 – Making Toys

Level Yellow : Ms. Butternut makes wooden toys. She has 5 wheels. She needs 2 wheels to make a motorcycle. How many motorcycles can she make?

Level Orange : Ms. Butternut makes wooden toys. She has 14 wheels. She needs 4 wheels to make a car. How many cars can she make?

Level Red : Ms. Butternut makes wooden toys. She has 31 wheels. She needs ____ wheels to make a heavy truck. How many heavy trucks can she make?

As always, invite your child to solve one of the problems by

1. modeling the problem with manipulatives (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers),
2. representing the problem on a piece of paper, and/or
3. writing an equation.

With all Levels, Ms Butternut has a left over of wheels. (Level Yellow: 2 motorcycles can be made, with 1 wheel left, Level Orange: 3 cars can be made, with 2 wheels left).

When your child is done, invite him/her to share his/her reasoning with you. By now, you know the routine, right ?  🙂

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

Last week, my child decided to mostly model with manipulative the problems. I think she was not sure how to represent the problem, and confused with the equation she could use. This week, she seemed more confident in her exploration.

With Level Orange, she started with drawing 14 wheels, and took away groups of 4 one at a time. With such strategy, she quickly saw the equation that could be associated to her reasoning: a repeated subtraction (which is how division can be seen). She used the left over to make a bicycle, but your child may state that Ms Butternut has 2 wheels left.

With Level Red (31wheels, 6 wheels / truck), she decided to draw tallies (by groups of 5) to represent 31 wheels. Then, as previously, she took away groups of 6, to end up with 5 trucks (and a tricycle i.e 3 wheels left). Now, I do not know how she did not get confused with taking groups of 6 out of her tiny groups of 5 tallies, but she did say along the process that  “maybe using tallies was not such a good idea”. I enjoyed watching Rosie discover on her own that some representations may work better in some situations, and less in others. Indeed, it is going to be up to her to select the most useful one depending on the problem.

I am also sharing below the work of a friend’s child, a 5th grader solving Level Red. In parallel with writing the equation, and labeling each part of it, the child also explained the model she could use to solve the problem.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

Funny how, from one year to the next, a same problem could lead to another exploration. Last year, Rosie drew all the wheels, and took away groups of them (e.g. a group of 4, while solving Level Orange). This year, she added up the groups of wheels needed for one vehicle (e.g. 6 wheels, like last year, to make a truck) until she reaches the total number of wheels available. Such an interesting way to explore the connections between all operations. Also, I think she enjoyed adding equations afterwards, as she could fully connect every part to the picture.

Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.

## Update Time 4 Fractions – Problem #3 – Baskets of eggs

My daughter and I went on a 12 week- journey last year to explore Fractions. We are doing it again this Fall. I am updating the posts from last year with videos, in case you want to join us this yearClick here if you want to know more about the journey and the previous problems.

Hope your child had fun exploring Problem #1, and Problem #2, two multiplication problems. Here is Problem #3, a measurement division problem (also called quotative division problem), our second step towards Equal Sharing problems (Empson & Levi, 2011, p 9).

Time 4 Fractions –  Problem #3 – Baskets of eggs

Level Yellow : Mr Moose has 4 eggs and some baskets. He wants to put 2 eggs in each basket. How many baskets can he fill?

Level Orange : Mr Moose has 12 eggs and some baskets. He wants to put 3 eggs in each basket. How many baskets can he fill?

Level Red : Mr Moose has 20 eggs and some baskets. He wants to put ___ eggs in each basket. How many baskets can he fill?

As with Problem #1 and #2, invite your child to solve one of the problems (you can pick one, or let him/her pick one) by

1. modeling the problem with manipulatives (such as buttons, marbles, etc, and small containers),
2. representing the problem on a piece of paper, and/or
3. writing an equation.

With Level Yellow and Orange, all eggs will be dispatched in a basket, and Mr Moose will have no egg left. With Level Red, invite the child to pick the number of eggs he/she wants to put in each basket. Depending on the number he/she picks, though, please note that Mr Moose may have some eggs left.

When your child is done, invite him/her to share his/her reasoning with you. If he/she writes only an equation, encourage him/her to share his/her strategy with a visual representation, or with manipulative.

Enjoy following his/her way of thinking !

Sharing my experience (Fall 2015)

• Since it was our first division problem, we spent a lot of time modeling, with marbles and containers. We did Level Yellow, Level Orange, but also Level Red, with 5 eggs per baskets. And when I said “we”, it is my child leading her exploration, and myself saying “tell me about what you are doing” from time to time. Nothing more, really. Symbols she may not know yet, formal teaching will occur in time, at school.
• An observation I found quite comforting regarding our journey is my child saying “You see, the more eggs you put, the less baskets you need !”, noticing the relationship between the number of items, the number of groups of items and the number of items in each group.  Do you see how this kind of connection relates somewhat to fractions, and the fact that sharing an item in 8 (1/8) provides smaller pieces than sharing the same item in 2  (1/2), i.e. the number 1/8 is smaller than the number 1/2 ? It is all about mathematical relationships.

Sharing my experience (Fall 2016)

• Click here to see a video of one of our explorations this week. Hope it helps. Just remember it is just an example of how a child may explore the problem. Your child may approach it differently !

Have fun, and see you next week for Problem #4 !

Reference:

Empson, S. E., and Levi, L. (2011). Extending Children’s Mathematics: Fractions and Decimals. Portsmouth, NH : Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0325030531.